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World-wide cultivation of winter rye


Winter rye is an important cereal crop in many countries. In 2013 rye was grown on 5,8 million hectares and total production volume of rye grain 14,6 million tonnes (Mt). About half of the total production is used for the bread-making, the rest is used for seed, animal feed and for production of spirits and plastic materials.


However production level of rye has fallen in most of the producing countries. In comparison with the year 2000 rye cultivation in the world has dropped approximately by 4 million hectares, total product has decreased by 3,4 Mt.


According to FAO statistics the largest rye growing countries in 2013 were Russian Federation (1,8 million ha) and Poland (1,2 million ha). The greatest rye producers in 2013 were Germany (4,7 Mt), Poland and Russian Federation (3,4 Mt). Other important rye growing countries are China, Ukraine and Belarus. Winter rye was cultivated in 2013 in the United States on 113 000 ha and in Canada on 89 000 ha.


In Germany rye is being use for bioenergy (57%), bread (17%), feed (13%) and the rest for export and other utilisation. In Estonia almost 50% of rye is used for human consumption.


In accordance with the report 2013 of European Union the share of rye in in agricultural production in 2012 was highest in Poland (2%), Latvia (1,6%), Germany (1,3%), Estonia (1,2%) and Lithuania (1,1%). Self-sufficiency in rye was higher Luxemburg, France, Latvia and Lithuania.

Rye consumption in EU 2011/2012 was 6802 thousand tons, for human consumption was used 3018 tons.